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What do we know about who wrote the New Testament Gospels? (1)

“When Jesus saw the crowds, he went up the mountain; and after he sat down, his disciples came to him; then he began to speak, and taught them” (Matt 5:1). These verses introduce the famous “Sermon on the Mount” in Matthew’s book of origins, and lead immediately into the Beatitudes, a series of blessings in which Jesus explains what is involved in “the kingdom of heaven”, which is the centre of his message (4:17, 23; 5:3, 10, 19–20).

On those Beatitudes, see

The author of this narrative knows very well the traditional rabbinic methods of teaching which were consistently employed by Jesus—he collects parables and pithy sayings, reports his dialogical debates and midrashic expositions, and shapes the whole “book of origins” so that, through its five collated teaching blocks, it evokes the five books of the Law of Moses—the “books of origins” of the people Israel. Jesus is presented as the Rabbi (Teacher) par excellence, the new Moses for the people of his time.

These five blocks of teaching provide an extensive catechisms for the disciples who travelled with Jesus throughout Galilee. We should remember that these disciples included more than “the twelve apostles” of later Christian tradition—Matthew himself notes that “many women … had followed Jesus from Galilee and had provided for him”, and identifies “Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee” amongst them (Matt 27:55–56).

However, this group of followers is representative for the larger group of people who had begun to follow Jesus in the years since the events reported in the Gospel. The work was compiled in order to provide a catechetical foundation for those later followers—through even to our own times, many centuries later.

These five teaching blocks canvass ethical imperatives (5:1–7:29), missional guidelines (10:5–11:1), parables of the kingdom (13:1–53), relationships within the community of faith (18:1–19:1), and apocalyptic predictions about the coming kingdom along with strengthened indications of what righteousness is required in that kingdom (23:1–26:2). These teachings are demanding and comprehensive.

Who compiled this teaching Gospel? Within ecclesial tradition, the author is identified as Matthew, the tax collector who became a disciple of Jesus. There is absolutely no hint that he was schooled in the intricacies of Torah interpretation. In that tradition, Matthew was appointed as an apostle, and later wrote an eye-witness account of the time he spent with Jesus. It’s a point of view that I don’t personally adhere to.

Within biblical scholarship, Matthew is recognised simply as a character who appears briefly in the story told by the first Gospel in the New Testament. He is identified in one short verse narrating his call by Jesus (Matt 9:9). He is also included in the list of twelve who were called to be apostles, with the added descriptor, “the tax collector” (Matt 10:3). He is also named in three other books, with nothing further said about him (Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; and Acts 1:13). But little else about him is conveyed in the four books that name him.

On the authorship of the Gospels, see

Those five fleeting references are the only times we see directly this person in the biblical narratives. He is surely there in other scenes, but he simply blends into the collection of “the disciples” (Mark 2:23; 3:7; 5:31: 6:1, 35, 41, 45; 7:17; 8:1–10, 14, 27, 34: 9:14, 28, 31; 10:10, 13, 23–24; 11:19; 12:43; 13:1; 14:12–16; and Synoptic parallels), “the twelve” (Mark 4:10; 6:7; 9:35; 14:20; and Synoptic parallels; and John 6:66–71; 20:24), or, even more anonymously, into “the crowd” (Mark 2:4, 13; 4:1; Matt 7:28; 13:2; Luke 5:1; 6:17; 7:11–12; 8:4; John 6:2; 12:9, 12; Acts 1:15; 2:6; etc.).

And yet, in the evolving church traditions, Matthew emerges from the shadows to take centre stage as disciple, apostle, saint, and author of the Gospel which is placed first in the New Testament. Some churches even maintain the patristic claim that Matthew wrote in Aramaic, and was later translated into the Greek version that forms the basis of the New Testament text.

The claim about Aramaic comes from a fourth century report by Eusebius of Caesarea that a second century bishop, Papias of Heirapolis, claimed that Matthew “put the logia in an ordered arrangement in the Hebrew language (Ἑβραΐδι διαλέκτῳ), but each person interpreted them as best he could” (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.16). We should note that this is a somewhat indirect witness at quite some remove, and also that the Greek word Ἑβραΐδι can be translated either as Hebrew or as Aramaic.

But this claim falls down from the clear evidence of the Greek text of Matthew’s Gospel, which mirrors very closely both the Gospel of Mark, at many points, and the Gospel of Luke, at other points, in passages found only in Matthew and Luke. The two key conclusions drawn by many scholars are twofold: first, that Matthew (like Luke) used the Gospel of Mark as a basis for writing a narrative about Jesus—but modified and adapted both the order and wording of passages; and second, that Luke and Matthew had access to another source (whether oral or written) for many of the sayings of Jesus (the source is known as Q). This makes it completely unlikely that Matthew wrote, in Aramaic, or in Hebrew, the earliest account of Jesus.

And ascribing the authorship of this Gospel to the tax collector identified at Matt 9:9 is also a patristic move. The title of this (and the other) Gospels, identifying the alleged author, is found only in later manuscripts and patristic writings; the narrative itself fails to identify anyone as the author, let alone the tax collector named Matthew. This claim is a later apologetic move, most likely made to provide an “apostolic authorisation” to the Gospel.

See

So what do we say, then, of “Matthew”, the purported author of this Gospel, a work which the author declares at the start to be “the book of origins of Jesus, Messiah” (Matt 1:1)? For me, a key to the way that the author of this “book of origins” operated is provided at Matt 13:52, where Jesus concludes a sequence of parables with the statement that “every scribe who has been trained for the kingdom of heaven is like the master of a household who brings out of his treasure what is new and what is old”.

That description encapsulates very clearly, for me, who the author of this Gospel was—a scribe, “trained for the kingdom”, drawing on old resources, but reshaping them so that they are seen to be new. We can see this in many ways in the narrative that he constructs. We can especially see this in the way he presents Jesus as an authoritative teacher of Torah—the one whose words are to be heard, remembered, studied, and passed on. (Thus, the reason for his writing of this Gospel.) It’s a point of view that undergirds the way that I interpret the various Gospel selections that the lectionary offers in this coming year, in which Jesus gathers his disciples, speaks to them, and teaches them.

Kim,Jong-ill

@great0727

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𝐀𝐧𝐝 𝐉𝐚𝐦𝐞𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐬𝐨𝐧 𝐨𝐟 𝐙𝐞𝐛𝐞𝐝𝐞𝐞, 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐉𝐨𝐡𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐛𝐫𝐨𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐫 𝐨𝐟 𝐉𝐚𝐦𝐞𝐬; 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐡𝐞 𝐬𝐮𝐫𝐧𝐚𝐦𝐞𝐝 𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐦 𝐁𝐨𝐚𝐧𝐞𝐫𝐠𝐞𝐬, 𝐰𝐡𝐢𝐜𝐡 𝐢𝐬, 𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐬𝐨𝐧𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐭𝐡𝐮𝐧𝐝𝐞𝐫: 𝐌𝐚𝐫𝐤 𝟑:𝟏𝟕 [𝐊𝐉𝐕]

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Kim,Jong-ill

@great0727

·

Hebrew ‘bne regesh’ (‘sons who make a noise like thunder’). It is not clear where this name came from, but it probably came about because of their impatient and straightforward nature (9:38; 10:35-37; Luke 9:54). These brothers were given the name Boanerges (a nickname for

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Kim,Jong-ill

@great0727

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Peter), which means son of thunder. The Bible gives a glimpse of these people as being quick-tempered and judgmental. For example, they were the ones who wanted fire from heaven on the Samaritan villages that did not welcome them (Luke 9:52-56).

Published by samo lucija

http://glasnik-sim.hr/prvi-dan-devetnice/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeKuqtTT1H PRESVETO TIJELO I KRV KRISTOVA. TIJELOVO Svetkovina (četvrtak nakon Presv. Trojstva) VEČERNJA MOLITVA Isuse, ostavio si nam Sebe u sakramentu svoga Tijela i Krvi. Dao si nam neizreciv dar. Dar bogat ljubavlju. Darovao si nam čitavog Sebe. Hvala Ti, Isuse. Hvala Ti, Isuse, što si oduvijek bio čovjek blizine. Uz Tebe se svatko osjećao prihvaćen i ljubljen. Nitko nije imao dojam da si ga olako shvatio ili površno slušao. I danas je tako, Isuse. Utaži, Gospodine, moju glad za osobom povjerenja, osobom koja ima vremena i ljubavi za drugoga. Osobom koja ne važe, koja ne mjeri, koja nije zaokupljena prvenstveno sobom. Koja zna čuti nečije teškoće i onda kada samo šutnja progovara. Osobom koja će bez uvrijeđenosti saslušati ono što možda i ne želi čuti. Pomozi mi da tu osobu tražim jedino u Tebi. Znaš i sam koliko sam puta ranjena zbog neprisutnosti osoba koje bi mi trebale biti blizu. Razočarana jer se netko od najbližih ne sjeti da mi je potreban ili se ne sjeti nečega što nije trebao previdjeti. Boli me kada primijetim da me netko uopće ne sluša ili me potpuno ignorira. Gospodine, pomozi mi ispuniti te praznine. Pomozi mi drugome biti poput Tebe. Biti netko tko zna drugome biti blizak, tko zna biti bližnji. Biti netko tko ima vremena i ljubavi za drugoga. Isuse, održao si svoje obećanje da ćeš biti s nama u sve dane do svršetka svijeta. Dao si nam sebe u Kruhu života. Na Tebe više nitko ne mora čekati, Isuse, u svakom času si sama prisutnost. Na svakoj Misi, u svakoj Pričesti. Hvala Ti, Isuse, na tom daru. Hvala ti što se i meni daruješ svojim Tijelom i svojom Krvlju. Više nisam sama, nisam prepuštena samoj sebi. Hvala Ti, Isuse …Suzana Monika Suzana Monika IL SORRISO DI MARIA 7 mtSptoniuhsaceormed · Santa Madre di Lourdes, madre degli infermi, poni sotto il tuo manto i malati terminali. Accoglili sotto il tuo Santo Manto e dona pace e Serenità alle loro famiglie. Heliga Lourdes moder, sjuka moder, sätt dödssjuk under din mantel. Välkomna dem under din Heliga Manto och ge fred och stillhet till deras familjer. Redigera eller ta bort detta Gilla · Svara · 1m Suzana Monika Suzana Monika Fani Kovač‎ till Jezus te ljubi ♥ Jesus loves you 5tS Stponcsoreigdocfmf · Tolaži Oče žalostne otroke! Tolaži Oče žalostne otroke, ki v stiskah in nemiru trepetamo, priznanja in ljubezni ne poznamo, slabotne nam in vklenjene so roke. Trplenje reže rane nam globoke in križ težak nam upogiba ramo. Srce je v najbritkejših urah samo: suh list na sredi reke je široke. Tolaži Oče žalostne otroke: poslal je Sina ,da za nas trpi. Poslal Edinca,da za nas umre! Objele so nas prebodene roke in dvigajo nas tja,kjer angeli nas venčajo,se z nami vesele. Kristus je Bog z nami. in sicer je navzoč in deluje v Cerkvi in po Cerkvi. Cerkev je po Kristusovi in po Božji volji orodje odrešenjskega Božjega delovanja. *Pod tvoje varstvo pribežimo,o sveta Božja Porodnica*. * O Marija,Ti vedno siješ na naši poti kot znamenje odrešenja in upanja.* AMEN! Bekväm far till ledsna barn! Bekväm far ledsna barn, som vi darrar av problem och ångest, Vi vet inte igenkänning och kärlek, Våra händer är svaga och handbojor. Att lida skär ner våra sår djupt och ett tungt kors böjer vår axel. Hjärtat är bara i snabbaste timmarna: Torrlövet mitt i älven är brett. Bekväm far till ledsna barn: han skickade sin son för att lida för oss. Skickat en Edinburgh för att dö för oss! Vi blev kramade av de piercade händerna och de lyfter upp oss där änglar är de gifter sig med oss, de är nöjda med oss. Kristus är Gud med oss. och det är närvarande och fungerar i kyrkan och efter kyrkan. Kyrkan är ute efter Kristus och enligt Guds vilja, verktyg frälsningen av Guds agerande. * Vi springer under din vård, åh Guds fosterland *. * O Mary, du skiner alltid på vår väg som ett tecken på frälsning och hopp.* ÄNDRA! · Betygsätt den här översättningen La Luce Di Maria È Nei Nostri Cuori. har lagt till ett 3D-foto Isgånarutc mkolgaScf.fgpo 0in7Ss:4oitredd8 · ‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨ ‼️⚜️‼️Gesù all'anima:‼️⚜️‼️ Abbracciati alla mia Croce e cerca conforto e la forza nelle tue pene da me, crocifisso per te. Abbi fede nel mio amore che non ti abbandona e nella protezione di Maria, che ti è Mamma amorosissima. Tu soffri nel tuo interno e non sai manifestare le tue pene, ma io le vedo e ti consolo con grazie speciali di amore. Ti benedico con la tua famiglia. ‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨ ‼️⚜️!! ️ Jesus till själen :‼ ️!! ️ Omfamna dig till mitt kors och sök tröst och styrka i dina sorger från mig, korsfäst för dig. Tro på min kärlek som inte överger dig och på skyddet av Mary, som är underbar mamma. Du lider inuti och du vet inte hur du ska visa dina sorger, men jag ser dem och trösta dig med ett speciellt tack av kärlek. Jag välsignar dig med din familj. Redigera eller ta bort detta Gilla · Svara · 1 min. Suzana Monika Suzana Monika amen https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=407414197090353&set=gm.3643338919056069&type=1&theater

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