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246. Magna Carta (1215) — chronolit

“No free man is to be arrested, or imprisoned, or disseized, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any other way ruined, nor will we go or send against him, except by the legal judgement of his peers or by the law of the land. To no one will be sell, to no one will be […]

246. Magna Carta (1215) — chronolit

246. Magna Carta (1215)

Aug 15, 2019

“No free man is to be arrested, or imprisoned, or disseized, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any other way ruined, nor will we go or send against him, except by the legal judgement of his peers or by the law of the land. To no one will be sell, to no one will be deny or delay, right or justice” 

Clauses 39 and 40, Magna Carta 1215.

Source :  Magna Carta : the making and legacy of the Great Charter, by Dan Jones, published by Head of Zeus, 2014.

Magna Carta continues to be touted as a charter of basic rights 800 years after the first version was confirmed at Runnymede in 1215. It is actually more a recognition of the rights of the Church and the aristocracy, with the warning that should the King renege on any clauses, the Barons would be allowed to “uphold and cause to be observed the peace and liberties .. confirmed in this present charter … shall distrain and distress us in all ways possible, by taking castles, lands, possessions and in any other ways they can, until it has been put right”  (clause 61, Magna Carta)

Thoughts : Dan Jones’ book provides background not just on King John’s reign and tyrannies, but also his brother Richard and father Henry II’s reigns where the rot set in. It is a quick read but provides an excellent overview of the situation away from the myths (for instance, John did not sign anything, the Royal Seal would have been affixed to the document by one of his court officials).

Favourite quotes/scenes:  John took the cross and promised to eventually join the Crusades (which he never did, dying of dysentery and a surfeit of fresh peaches during the civil war of 1216. However, this was a politically astute move as it lifted the excommunication and gave him the support of Pope Innocent III, which led to Innocent making the following pronouncement regarding Magna Carta:

“Although our well-beloved son in Christ, John, illustrious King of the English, grievously offended God and the Church … the king at length returned to his senses.  …. [the barons showed] shameless presumption that the King’s rights were injured, the English nation shamed and the whole plan for a crusade seriously endangered …. we utterly reject and condemn this settlement and under threat of excommunication we order that the king should not dare to observe it”

Digressions/diversions:   During my recent holiday in England, I saw one of the 1215 copies of Magna Carta at Sailsbury Cathedral (the one attacked by a hammer wielding idiot a few years ago) and a 1217 copy at Hereford Cathedral (also home of the very impressive chained library and the Mappa Mundi, a detailed Medieval map of the entire known world).

Personal rating:  Interesting. 5/10

In the years 1210-1219:

  • Pope Innocent III authorizes St Francis of Assisi and 11 others to be roving preachers, 1210
  • Aztec civilization active in Mexico
  • Thousands of children set out on the Children’s Crusade to the Holy Land, most perishing,1212
  • Spanish Christians defeat Moorish Almohades at Las Navas de Tolosa, completing Christian reconquest of Spain, 1212
  • Genghis Khan’s Mongols seize Bokhara (Uzbekistan), 1219
  • Hojo family ends Minamoto reign in Japan, ruling as regents for the Shoguns, 1219

from The Book of Key Facts, Paddington Press, 1978

  1. Thanksgiving – Prelude to Christmas — Been Pondering…
  2. Been Pondering… EditThanksgiving – Prelude to Christmas — Been Pondering…Thanksgiving is most certainly a fitting Prelude to Christmas that culminates with a worldwide celebration of the Lord Jesus Christ’s birth on earth. This Thanksgiving-Christmas season even captivates the commercial marketplace that begins to advertise merchandise to customers who also wish to celebrate such a glorious event! While celebrating this advent, the “key” to maintaining […]Thanksgiving – Prelude to Christmas — Been Pondering…
    Man’s True Source of strength – the Ancient Seed!
    1d ago“Methuselah” Palm Grown From 2,000-Year-Old Seed
    Thanksgiving to Christmas is a good time to ponder things that remind us of the Reason for the season. One such item during this century is the budding to life of a 2,000-year-old seed, which was discovered over forty years ago by archaeologists who were digging at Masada. After the find, this aged seed was simply placed in a container where it remained another thirty years. Then, in 2005 this extraordinary seed was planted in Israel’s soil where it sprouted into life as a Judean Date Palm!Because radiocarbon dating had confirmed the Masada seed to be approximately 2,000-years old, the tree was named “Methuselah.” Up until “Methuselah” sprouted and grew in 2005, the Judean Date Palm Trees were believed to be extinct!The “Methuselah” tree has been featured in news reports, many containing fascinating information about the Judean Date Palm. Consider these examples:Radiocarbon dating confirming this seed to be 1,990 years old, plus or minus 50 years.
    2,000-year-old seeds had never germinated before.
    The date palm is considered to be a symbol of ancient Israel.
    Ancient Hebrews called the date palm the “tree of life” because of the protein in its fruit and the shade given by its long leafy branches.
    The honey of “the land of milk and honey” is said to have come from the date.
    The Romans observed prolific forests or groves in the Jordan River valley, extending from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea and called the date palm “the date-bearing phoenix” because it never seemed to die and was able to flourish in the desert where other plants could not survive.
    The date palm is a symbol of peace associated with the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem.
    The date palms of Judea were eradicated after the destruction of the Temple in AD 70.
    As of 2015, the “Methuselah” tree was growing well on the grounds of Kibbutz Ketura in the Rift Valley of Israel. “Methuselah” is a male tree and has good pollen, as revealed by the recent successful pollination with a modern wild female tree.Life in the Seed
    The fact that there is life in the seed is a captivating thought. While musing over the discovery at Masada of the 2,000-year old seed and its budding into life as the “Methuselah” tree, my thoughts re-positioned to the “The Ancient Seed” that Mary chose to accept from the Holy Spirit. “‘I am the Lord’s servant,’ Mary answered [in response to Gabriel’s proclamation]. ‘May it be to me as you have said.’” At that moment, about 2,000 years ago, Mary miraculously conceived the life on earth of Jesus Christ, Immanuel. Approximately nine months later, Jesus was born of Mary in Bethlehem, Israel.As noted in the opening paragraph, there was “life” in the aged seed, which was unearthed at Masada. During this Christmas season when the world celebrates the “eternal life” in the “Ancient Seed” that Mary received, the possibility of a hidden symbol in the life springing from that “Methuselah tree seed” appears to be a reasonable consideration. Although speculation, the Methuselah tree event could be a foretelling of the imminent return to Israel of “The Ancient Seed” of Almighty God — this time as the reigning Messiah! Whatever the case, be it symbolic or not, the miraculous sprouting of a 2,000-year-old seed in Israel should ignite the desire of a sojourning disciple of Christ, heightening anticipation of the Eternal Seed returning for His bride and establishing His everlasting kingdom.Maranatha!The Plan for Seed-Bearing Fruit
    There are some fascinating aspects about this “aged seed from Masada” that raise the possibility of its relevant symbolism to “The Ancient Seed” of Almighty God.Have you ever wondered how life can be compressed and reduced to a seed? Virtually all of living creation perpetuates itself in seed. Within each seed is a code — like a program within a computer — that has been stored up in the seed since its creation when God first spoke the universe into existence and breathed His divine breath into Adam. That program, when launched, controls everything that will happen in the seed, even down to the timing of its release into growth. Within the software of the seed’s program is locked up all the identity and characteristics of the life-form it will become. How a tiny seed can contain all this is a mystery; but without doubt, we know that there is life in the seed!Another significant mystery of the seed is that it can lie dormant for many years and still, under the right circumstances, sprout into life. When a seed is in a sterile or hostile environment, no signs of life are apparent. But if that seed is dropped into a place that nourishes it, the purpose of the seed is unlocked. The seed will dissolve itself, its code will begin sending signals to all its genetic parts, and they in turn will initiate their God-designed actions until the designated form of life is produced.In Almighty God’s never-ending goodness and mercy to reveal His infinite thoughts and ways to man’s finite mental capabilities, the Lord gave Moses a revelation regarding the original process that He established in creation:“God said, ‘Let the earth put forth grass, seed-producing plants, and fruit trees, each yielding its own kind of seed-bearing fruit, on the earth’; and that is how it was.” (Genesis 1:11 CJB emphasis added)God purposed that His fruit have seed in it! This is true whether from a natural perspective of an apple or from a spiritual discernment of a regenerated life, both of which bear fruit. In other words, the fruit of a Christian should contain the means to reproduce itself. The seed is the remnant of the fruit and therefore the remnant of the harvest. Without doubt, God will always have a believing remnant at any time during this age. A true follower of Jesus Christ should always desire to manifest seed-bearing fruit of high quality that will sound like and look like Jesus (see Galatians 5:22-23) for the planting of the new generation.Fall of Mankind
    “Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.” (Genesis 2:7 NASB)God gave man every plant and the seed-bearing fruit of every tree as food to sustain human life on earth. (See Genesis 1:29.)The Lord God commanded Adam, who is a prototype for all men, NOT to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Adam could, however, eat from EVERY OTHER tree in the Garden of Eden. (See Genesis 2:16-17.)“[B]ut for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him. So the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place. The LORD God fashioned into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man.” (Genesis 2:20b-22 NASB)Eve, the woman whom God had created from Adam, is a prototype for all women. Satan, masquerading as a serpent, deceived Eve, duping her by distorting God’s command, which was NOT to eat of the one specific tree. Eve, who was charmed by Satan’s con, decided to eat the one forbidden fruit, thus sinning by disobeying Almighty God’s command.Eve then enticed Adam to also eat from it. (See Genesis 3:1-6.) Even though Adam was not deceived (1 Timothy 2:14-15) and knew exactly what he was doing, he chose to abdicate his God-established position as decision maker, thus allowing Eve to assume the position of authority. Adam’s choice to willfully disobey God’s commandment brought sin, not only to himself, but to all mankind.“For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.” (1 Corinthians 15:22 NASB emphasis added)Sin cannot come into God’s presence. Satan seemed to have dealt a death blow to God’s desire to have a spotless bride for His Son. God’s plan, being an eternal one and established before the foundation of the world, was not to be thwarted. Thus, as a direct result of sin by both Adam and Eve, the Lord set forth His judgment and promise:“The LORD God said to the serpent, ‘Because you have done this, Cursed are you more than all cattle, And more than every beast of the field; On your belly you will go, And dust you will eat All the days of your life; And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, And you shall bruise him on the heel.’” (Genesis 3:14-15 NASB)The identity of the “serpent” as the devil is revealed in Revelation 20:2, “And he laid hold of the dragon, the serpent of old, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years” (NASB with emphasis added)“Then He said to the woman, “I will sharpen the pain of your pregnancy, and in pain you will give birth. And you will desire to control your husband, but he will rule over you.’” (Genesis 3:16 NLT emphasis added)Mystery of the Seed
    Placing enmity between Satan’s seed and the woman’s seed set the stage that revealed the intense struggle for the souls of all mankind and the ultimate battle that will be waged at the end of this age! As earlier noted, the Lord God in His goodness to mankind reveals glimpses of His thoughts and ways through His Word. He revealed His plan to Moses and the Prophets, which they penned throughout the Old Testament. After the death and resurrection of Christ, where He paid man’s colossal sin debt incurred in the Garden of Eden, Jesus revealed Himself in passages enveloped within the Old Testament as follows:“He said to them, ‘How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?’ And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.” (Luke 24:25-27 NIV84 emphasis added)Although the specifics of Jesus’ revelation to those disciples on the road to Emmaus are not recorded in Luke 24, First Timothy 2:14-15 sheds light on this miracle and mystery of The Seed:“And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived has come to be in transgression; but she will be kept safe through the childbearing, if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with sensibleness.” (Literal Translation Version with emphasis added)In addition, the Amplified Bible reveals a degree of the hidden meaning of those verses, which are set forth in First Timothy, as follows:“And it was not Adam who was deceived, but [the] woman who was deceived and deluded and fell into transgression. [Genesis 3:1-6.] Nevertheless [the sentence put upon women of pain in motherhood does not hinder their souls’ salvation, and] they will be saved [eternally] if they continue in faith and love and holiness with self-control, [saved indeed] through the Childbearing or by the birth of the divine Child.” (1 Timothy 2:14-15 Amplified Bible emphasis added)Clarification may also be found in Adam Clarke’s commentary on 1 Timothy 2:14-15, when he notes that James MacKnight’s (1721-1800) explanation appears to be the most probable glimpse into this revelation of the spiritual realm of the Almighty. For simplicity, I have edited Macknight’s notes by use of ellipsis (showing omitted items as “…”), making notations or adding definitions with [brackets], and emphasizing with bolded letters:[T]he female sex shall be saved (equally with the male) through child-bearing — through bringing forth the Savior, if they live in faith, and love, and chastity, with that sobriety… The word saved refers to the woman in the foregoing verse, which is certainly Eve. This did not mean to say that Eve alone was to be saved through child-bearing, but that all her posterity, whether male or female, are to be saved through the child-bearing of a woman; as is evident from his adding the condition; if they live in faith and love and holiness, with sobriety.The salvation of the human race, through child-bearing, was intimated [suggested] in the sentence passed on the serpent [Satan] in Genesis 3:15: “I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed. It shall bruise thy head.” Accordingly, [Jesus Christ] the Savior, being conceived in the womb of his mother [Mary], by the power of the Holy Ghost, he is truly the seed of the woman who was to bruise the head of the serpent [Satan]; and a woman, by bringing him forth, has been the occasion of salvation [to those choosing to accept Him as the Son of God, their Lord and Master].…[B]y the holy virgin’s child-bearing, salvation is provided for them and [offered to] the whole human race; and that, whether they die or live, though their own child-bearing can contribute nothing to their salvation, yet he [Jesus Christ] who was born of a woman has purchased them and the whole human race by His blood.Woman and the Miraculous Conception of the Savior
    In “the fullness of time,” a day came when the eyes of Almighty God focused on a small town in Israel. And God said:“But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times.” (Micah 5:2 NIV84 emphasis added)God had chosen a nation, Israel. He had chosen a tribe, Judah. He had chosen a family of David. He had chosen a city, Bethlehem. It remained but to choose a woman.God waited and proceeded to implement His plan when the genetic timing for the unfolding of His Eternal Seed was perfect. In that very moment of time (see Luke 1:26-38) for which all of eternity had waited, God sent Gabriel to Mary.Then the faithful angel of God found his way to the young woman, who was delighting herself in the Lord as she lived her life in faith and love and holiness. Gabriel, a messenger more radiant than the setting sun, stopped before Mary and told her that God had chosen her to bear The Eternal Seed!“Mary said to the angel, ‘How can this be, since I am a virgin?’ The angel answered and said to her, ‘The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God.’” (Luke 1:34-35)“I am the Lord’s servant,” Mary answered. “May it be to me as you have said.” (Luke 1:38)As the result of Mary’s obedience, a Child unlike any other man, a new and divine Adam, was miraculously conceived within her.A Child – The Ancient Eternal Seed
    The Eternal Seed was planted. God had kept His word to Adam and Eve. Through the flood, through the exodus from Egypt, through the reign of corrupt kings, through the times of Israel’s captivity, and through mankind’s many trials and tribulations, God watched over His promise faithfully. On that day when His Eternal Seed came to rest in Mary, He had kept His covenant to Adam and Eve. The Child was conceived.“This is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit. Because Joseph her husband was a righteous man and did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, ‘Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.’ All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: ‘The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel’ — which means, ‘God with us. When Joseph woke up, he did what the angel of the Lord had commanded him and took Mary home as his wife. But he had no union with her until she gave birth to a son. And he gave him the name Jesus.’” (Matthew 1:18-25 NIV84 emphasis added)Finally, when her time had come to give birth, Mary was in Bethlehem on a night when the shepherds were watching their flocks.“And there were shepherds living out in the fields nearby, keeping watch over their flocks at night. An angel of the Lord appeared to them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified. But the angel said to them, ‘Do not be afraid. I bring you good news of great joy that will be for all the people. Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you; he is Christ the Lord. This will be a sign to you: You will find a baby wrapped in cloths and lying in a manger.’ Suddenly a great company of the heavenly host appeared with the angel, praising God and saying, ‘Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men on whom his favor rests.’” (Luke 2:8-14 NIV84 emphasis added)In that moment all of history was gathered together and focused upon the Savior of the world.“Unto us a child is born”—not just another child, but an opportunity for eternal life!He was only one Child; but He is enough; He is the Eternal Seed!The Second Adam
    Time passed, and the purposes of God unfolded. Thirty-three years later, Mary — bearing a burden that only a mother could experience — and her son walked out of the city gates beyond Jerusalem’s walls toward Golgotha. During His years on earth, her son — her seed and God’s Seed — had preached the Good News to the poor, proclaimed release to the captives, restored sight to the blind and set free those who were oppressed.As she watched His suffering and crucifixion, she probably remembered the words of old Simeon who had prophesied:“This child is destined to cause many in Israel to fall, but He will be a joy to many others. He has been sent as a sign from God, but many will oppose Him. As a result, the deepest thoughts of many hearts will be revealed. And a sword will pierce your very soul.” (Luke 2:34-35 NLT)And as she watched her son’s blood and the life of the Seed flow into the ground, perhaps Mary recalled as well her Son’s words, “…unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit.” (John 12:24 NASB)The three days that followed were somber. But on the third day, “the First fruits of them that slept” walked out — a new Adam, a new Man! He was One who had not wavered in His responsibility or His obedience; He was One prepared to take God’s newly created Eve — His Church — into the very portals of eternity as His bride.Fifty days later, at the Feast of Pentecost, the horizon was filled with new plantings from God’s Eternal Seed — those choosing to receive life eternal from Jesus Christ as they repented and accepted Him as Savior and chose to serve Him as Lord. Jews, and later the Gentiles, who chose to place their faith in Christ Jesus became the responsible heirs of a new creation, whose glory will be made known in all the heavens and the earth when He returns to reclaim His rightful position as King and Ruler over earth!Celebrate Christ’s First Coming – Look Forward to His Second Coming
    “For the grace of God has been revealed, bringing salvation to all people. And we are instructed to turn from godless living and sinful pleasures. We should live in this evil world with wisdom, righteousness, and devotion to God, while we look forward with hope to that wonderful day when the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ, will be revealed. He gave His life to free us from every kind of sin, to cleanse us, and to make us His very own people, totally committed to doing good deeds.” (Titus 2:11-14 NLT)Titus 2:11-14 speaks of the first coming into the world (vs. 11) of our great God, Deliverer and Lord, Jesus Christ, and points to His appearing again at the End of Days (vs. 13).The purpose for Jesus’ first coming to earth in human form, which we now call Christmas, was His eventual death upon the cross of Calvary, His resurrection from the dead, and His ascension to His heavenly seat at the right hand of God. That advent of Christ occurred over two thousand years ago and its benefit has spanned the centuries, offering eternal life to those who embrace Jesus Christ as Savior and choose to serve Him as Lord.His second coming to earth will be “the blessed hope,” which will manifest the glory of God as Deliverer at the End of Days.By divine intent, the first coming of Christ is unfinished without the second coming. The second coming of Christ in the plan of God is ineffective without the first coming. In His first coming, Christ’s death and resurrection satisfied God’s holiness. This, in turn, provided the means for man’s redemption and Christ’s ultimate victory over Satan at His second coming.The accomplishments of Christ’s first appearing are wonderful beyond sinful man’s ability to fully express. The sin debt owed by disobedient man was so huge that man could not pay it. That debt for all mankind’s sin was paid by the blood of Jesus Christ.At Christ’s second appearance, the deliverance (salvation) of His bride, the church, will be consummated. At that time, His bride’s mortal and corruptible bodies will be changed into immortal and incorruptible bodies; all sin will be purged; all evil will be judged; and Christ will rule and reign over the world with power and sovereignty.May we choose to celebrate this Christmas season by setting aside things that veil the light and shadow the truth — things that bar the path of God’s good, acceptable and perfect will — by consistently laying down our old sinful nature’s resistance to the Lord’s ways, thus allowing the Holy Spirit to release the incorruptible, Eternal Seed — the mystery of the ages — through our thoughts, speech and actions.“Therefore, brethren, since we have full freedom and confidence to enter into the [Holy of] Holies [by the power and virtue] in the blood of Jesus, By this fresh (new) and living way which He initiated and dedicated and opened for us through the separating curtain (veil of the Holy of Holies), that is, through His flesh, And since we have [such] a great and wonderful and noble Priest [Who rules] over the house of God, Let us all come forward and draw near with true (honest and sincere) hearts in unqualified assurance and absolute conviction engendered by faith (by that leaning of the entire human personality on God in absolute trust and confidence in His power, wisdom, and goodness), having our hearts sprinkled and purified from a guilty (evil) conscience and our bodies cleansed with pure water. So let us seize and hold fast and retain without wavering the hope we cherish and confess and our acknowledgement of it, for He Who promised is reliable (sure) and faithful to His word.” (Hebrews 10:19-23 AMP)Conclusion
    What better season than Christmas to enhance one’s daily adoration and worship of Jesus Christ, the Ancient of Days, the Eternal Seed? May the music audio embedded below assist our efforts to establish an atmosphere of worship as we allow the lyrics of this song to remind us to worship the Lord Jesus from the perspective of the true tabernacle — a picture or type of Jesus Christ. Let us recall the design of the tabernacle in the wilderness as we listen to the song and spiritually:(1) Enter into His Gate with thanksgiving and His court with praise,(2) In awe of Immanuel, prayerfully proceed into the Holy Place, and(3) Come into the Holy of Holies, worshiping Jesus, the Lamb of God!Alleluia, AlleluiaFor the Lord God Almighty reignsAlleluia, AlleluiaFor the Lord God Almighty reignsAlleluiaHoly, Holy are You Lord God AlmightyWorthy is the LambWorthy is the LambYou are Holy, Holy are You Lord God AlmightyWorthy is the LambWorthy is the Lamb, AmenAlleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia, AlleluiaFor the Lord God Almighty reignsAlleluiaHoly, Holy are You Lord God AlmightyWorthy is the LambWorthy is the LambYou are Holy, Holy are You Lord God AlmightyWorthy is the LambWorthy is the Lamb, AmenAlleluia, AlleluiaFor the Lord God Almighty reignsAlleluia, AlleluiaFor the Lord God Almighty reignsAmenShare
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    Follow Conversation1 COMMENTPapa: Ovo je prelijep tekst iz Biblije i želim da ga danas pročitate
    Sveti Otac ima duhovni prijedlog za nas…Foto: AM113/ShutterstockVeć smo pisali o daru pape Franje za praktične savjete i male životne mudrosti koje vjernicima zna uputiti tijekom svojih govora.Nešto slično Sveti je Otac napravio i u srijedu tijekom opće audijencije osvrnuvši se na “jednu od najljepših stranica knjige Djela apostolskih”.Govorivši o načinu na koji se “svećenici i kršćani trebaju opraštati” od bližnjih, poručio je:Pavao potom odlazi iz Efeza u Jeruzalem i stiže u Milet (usp. Dj 20, 1-16). Ovdje je sazvao starješine Crkve u Efezu – prezbitere: rekli bismo svećenike – da izvrši „pastoralnu“ primopredaju (usp. Dj 20, 17-35). Na kraju smo apostolske službe Pavla i Luka nam predstavlja njegov oproštajni govor, svojevrsnu duhovnu oporuku koju Apostol upućuje onima koji će nakon njegova odlaska trebati voditi zajednicu u Efezu. To je jedna od najljepših stranica knjige Djela apostolskih: preporučujem vam da danas uzmete Novi zavjet, Bibliju, poglavlje 20, i pročitate ovaj Pavlov oproštaj od efeških prezbitera, i on to čini u Miletu. To je način da se shvati kako se Apostol oprašta i kako se svećenici danas moraju opraštati pa i kako se svi kršćani moraju opraštati. To je prelijep tekst.Biblijski isječak o kojem je govorio Sveti Otac možete pročitati u nastavku:Odlomak iz Djela apostolskih (17-35)
    Ipak iz Mileta posla u Efez po starješine Crkve. Kad stigoše, reče im: »Vi znate kako sam se sve vrijeme, od prvog dana kada stupih u Aziju, ponašao među vama: služio sam Gospodinu sa svom poniznošću u suzama i kušnjama koje me zadesiše zbog zasjeda židovskih; ništa korisno nisam propustio navijestiti vam i naučiti vas – javno i po kućama; upozoravao sam Židove i Grke da se obrate k Bogu i da vjeruju u Gospodina našega Isusa.«»A sad, evo, okovan Duhom idem u Jeruzalem. Što će me u njemu zadesiti, ne znam, osim što mi Duh Sveti u svakom gradu jamči da me čekaju okovi i nevolje. Ali ni najmanje mi nije do života, samo da dovršim trku svoju i službu koju primih od Gospodina Isusa: svjedočiti za evanđelje milosti Božje.«»I sad, evo, znam: nećete više vidjeti lica moga, svi vi posred kojih prođoh propovijedajući Kraljevstvo. Zato vam u ovaj dan današnji jamčim: čist sam od krvi sviju jer nisam propustio navijestiti vam ništa od svega nauma Božjega.«»Pazite na sebe i na sve stado u kojem vas Duh Sveti postavi nadglednicima, da pasete Crkvu Božju koju steče krvlju svojom.« »Ja znam da će nakon mog odlaska među vas uljesti vuci okrutni koji ne štede stada, a između vas će samih ustati ljudi koji će iskrivljavati nauk da bi odvukli učenike za sobom. Zato bdijte imajući na pameti da sam tri godine bez prestanka noću i danju suze lijevajući urazumljivao svakoga od vas.«»I sada vas povjeravam Bogu i Riječi milosti njegove koja je kadra izgraditi vas i dati vam baštinu među svima posvećenima.«
    »Ni za čijim srebrom, zlatom ili ruhom nisam hlepio. Sami znate: za potrebe moje i onih koji su sa mnom zasluživale su ove ruke. U svemu vam pokazah: tako se trudeći treba se zauzimati za nemoćne i na pameti imati riječi Gospodina Isusa jer on reče: ‘Blaženije je davati nego primati.’«

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http://glasnik-sim.hr/prvi-dan-devetnice/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeKuqtTT1H PRESVETO TIJELO I KRV KRISTOVA. TIJELOVO Svetkovina (četvrtak nakon Presv. Trojstva) VEČERNJA MOLITVA Isuse, ostavio si nam Sebe u sakramentu svoga Tijela i Krvi. Dao si nam neizreciv dar. Dar bogat ljubavlju. Darovao si nam čitavog Sebe. Hvala Ti, Isuse. Hvala Ti, Isuse, što si oduvijek bio čovjek blizine. Uz Tebe se svatko osjećao prihvaćen i ljubljen. Nitko nije imao dojam da si ga olako shvatio ili površno slušao. I danas je tako, Isuse. Utaži, Gospodine, moju glad za osobom povjerenja, osobom koja ima vremena i ljubavi za drugoga. Osobom koja ne važe, koja ne mjeri, koja nije zaokupljena prvenstveno sobom. Koja zna čuti nečije teškoće i onda kada samo šutnja progovara. Osobom koja će bez uvrijeđenosti saslušati ono što možda i ne želi čuti. Pomozi mi da tu osobu tražim jedino u Tebi. Znaš i sam koliko sam puta ranjena zbog neprisutnosti osoba koje bi mi trebale biti blizu. Razočarana jer se netko od najbližih ne sjeti da mi je potreban ili se ne sjeti nečega što nije trebao previdjeti. Boli me kada primijetim da me netko uopće ne sluša ili me potpuno ignorira. Gospodine, pomozi mi ispuniti te praznine. Pomozi mi drugome biti poput Tebe. Biti netko tko zna drugome biti blizak, tko zna biti bližnji. Biti netko tko ima vremena i ljubavi za drugoga. Isuse, održao si svoje obećanje da ćeš biti s nama u sve dane do svršetka svijeta. Dao si nam sebe u Kruhu života. Na Tebe više nitko ne mora čekati, Isuse, u svakom času si sama prisutnost. Na svakoj Misi, u svakoj Pričesti. Hvala Ti, Isuse, na tom daru. Hvala ti što se i meni daruješ svojim Tijelom i svojom Krvlju. Više nisam sama, nisam prepuštena samoj sebi. Hvala Ti, Isuse …Suzana Monika Suzana Monika IL SORRISO DI MARIA 7 mtSptoniuhsaceormed · Santa Madre di Lourdes, madre degli infermi, poni sotto il tuo manto i malati terminali. Accoglili sotto il tuo Santo Manto e dona pace e Serenità alle loro famiglie. Heliga Lourdes moder, sjuka moder, sätt dödssjuk under din mantel. Välkomna dem under din Heliga Manto och ge fred och stillhet till deras familjer. Redigera eller ta bort detta Gilla · Svara · 1m Suzana Monika Suzana Monika Fani Kovač‎ till Jezus te ljubi ♥ Jesus loves you 5tS Stponcsoreigdocfmf · Tolaži Oče žalostne otroke! Tolaži Oče žalostne otroke, ki v stiskah in nemiru trepetamo, priznanja in ljubezni ne poznamo, slabotne nam in vklenjene so roke. Trplenje reže rane nam globoke in križ težak nam upogiba ramo. Srce je v najbritkejših urah samo: suh list na sredi reke je široke. Tolaži Oče žalostne otroke: poslal je Sina ,da za nas trpi. Poslal Edinca,da za nas umre! Objele so nas prebodene roke in dvigajo nas tja,kjer angeli nas venčajo,se z nami vesele. Kristus je Bog z nami. in sicer je navzoč in deluje v Cerkvi in po Cerkvi. Cerkev je po Kristusovi in po Božji volji orodje odrešenjskega Božjega delovanja. *Pod tvoje varstvo pribežimo,o sveta Božja Porodnica*. * O Marija,Ti vedno siješ na naši poti kot znamenje odrešenja in upanja.* AMEN! Bekväm far till ledsna barn! Bekväm far ledsna barn, som vi darrar av problem och ångest, Vi vet inte igenkänning och kärlek, Våra händer är svaga och handbojor. Att lida skär ner våra sår djupt och ett tungt kors böjer vår axel. Hjärtat är bara i snabbaste timmarna: Torrlövet mitt i älven är brett. Bekväm far till ledsna barn: han skickade sin son för att lida för oss. Skickat en Edinburgh för att dö för oss! Vi blev kramade av de piercade händerna och de lyfter upp oss där änglar är de gifter sig med oss, de är nöjda med oss. Kristus är Gud med oss. och det är närvarande och fungerar i kyrkan och efter kyrkan. Kyrkan är ute efter Kristus och enligt Guds vilja, verktyg frälsningen av Guds agerande. * Vi springer under din vård, åh Guds fosterland *. * O Mary, du skiner alltid på vår väg som ett tecken på frälsning och hopp.* ÄNDRA! · Betygsätt den här översättningen La Luce Di Maria È Nei Nostri Cuori. har lagt till ett 3D-foto Isgånarutc mkolgaScf.fgpo 0in7Ss:4oitredd8 · ‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨ ‼️⚜️‼️Gesù all'anima:‼️⚜️‼️ Abbracciati alla mia Croce e cerca conforto e la forza nelle tue pene da me, crocifisso per te. Abbi fede nel mio amore che non ti abbandona e nella protezione di Maria, che ti è Mamma amorosissima. Tu soffri nel tuo interno e non sai manifestare le tue pene, ma io le vedo e ti consolo con grazie speciali di amore. Ti benedico con la tua famiglia. ‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨‼️⚜️✨ ‼️⚜️!! ️ Jesus till själen :‼ ️!! ️ Omfamna dig till mitt kors och sök tröst och styrka i dina sorger från mig, korsfäst för dig. Tro på min kärlek som inte överger dig och på skyddet av Mary, som är underbar mamma. Du lider inuti och du vet inte hur du ska visa dina sorger, men jag ser dem och trösta dig med ett speciellt tack av kärlek. Jag välsignar dig med din familj. Redigera eller ta bort detta Gilla · Svara · 1 min. Suzana Monika Suzana Monika amen https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=407414197090353&set=gm.3643338919056069&type=1&theater

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  1. Läsningsgudstjänst
    Den 8 december 2019, söndag
    Andra söndagen i advent

    (eller – Psalterium 2015)
    (eller – black-white)
    Gud, kom till min räddning.
    Herre, skynda till min hjälp.
    Ära vare Fadern och Sonen och den helige Ande,
    nu och alltid och i evigheters evighet. Amen. (Halleluja.)

    Hymn

    Du som är gåvan, himlens Ord
    och ljus av ljus, av Fadern född,
    vid tidens ände trädde fram
    att resa världen ur dess fall.

    I hjärtat lys med härlig glans
    och tänd i oss din kärleks brand.
    Må budet om ditt närmande
    fördriva från oss fienden.

    Då du skall pröva oss till sist,
    kan intet döljas för din blick.
    Det mörkas makt skall få sin dom,
    rättfärdigheten evig lön.

    Låt oss, fast mycket ont vi gjort,
    ej räknas till de ondas hop
    men med de saliga få del
    av himmelrikets ljuvlighet.

    Din är all makt och härlighet,
    0 Kristus, Konung, Frälsare,
    med Fadern och med Hjälparen
    en enda Gud i evighet. Amen.

    eller: När vintermörkret… ⇓⇑

    Ant. 1 Herren, den höge konungen, kommer i makt för att frälsa folken.

    Psalm 104
    Skaparens lov
    Den som är i Kristus är en ny skapelse; det gamla är förbi, något nytt har kommit (2 Kor 5:17)

    I

    Lova Herren, min själ. *
    Herre, min Gud, du är hög och stor.
    I majestät och härlighet är du klädd, *
    du höljer dig i ljus som i en mantel,

    du spänner ut himlen som ett tält, *
    du timrar på vattnen dina salar,
    molnen gör du till din vagn, *
    och du far på vindens vingar.

    Du gör vindar till dina sändebud, *
    eldslågor till dina tjänare.
    Du grundade jorden på hennes fästen, *
    så att den aldrig i evighet vacklar.

    Med djupet betäckte du den som med en klädnad, *
    vattnen stod högt över bergen.
    Men för ditt rytande flydde de, *
    när din stämma dånade hastade de undan.

    Berg höjde sig, och dalar sänkte sig, *
    på den plats som du hade bestämt.
    Du satte en gräns för vattnen, *
    så att de inte åter skulle täcka jorden.

    Du lät källor flyta fram i dalarna, *
    mellan bergen tog de sin väg.
    De ger vatten åt alla markens djur, *
    vildåsnorna släcker i dem sin törst.

    Vid dem bor himlens fåglar, *
    från trädens grenar höjer de sin röst.
    Ära vare Fadern och Sonen och den helige Ande, *
    nu och alltid och i evigheters evighet. Amen.

    Ant. 1 Herren, den höge konungen, kommer i makt för att frälsa folken.

    Ant. 2 Jubla och gläd dig, dotter Jerusalem. Se, din konung kommer. Frukta inte, dotter Sion, ty din frälsning kommer snart.

    II

    Du vattnar bergen från dina salar, *
    jorden mättas av den frukt du skapar.
    Du låter gräs skjuta upp för djuren *
    och växter till människans tjänst.

    Så låter du bröd framgå ur jorden *
    och vin, som gläder människans hjärta.
    Så gör du hennes ansikte glänsande av olja, *
    och brödet styrker människans hjärta.

    Herrens träd blir också mättade, *
    Libanons cedrar, som han har planterat.
    Fåglarna bygger där sina nästen, *
    hägern gör sitt bo i cypresserna.

    Stenbockarna har fått de höga bergen, *
    klyftorna är klippdassarnas tillflykt.
    Du gjorde månen till att bestämma tiderna, *
    solen vet stunden då den skall gå ner.

    Du sänder mörker, och det blir natt *
    — då kommer alla skogens djur i rörelse,
    de unga lejonen ryter efter rov *
    och begär sin föda av Gud.

    Solen går upp — då drar de sig tillbaka *
    och lägger sig ner i sina kulor.
    Människan går då ut till sin gärning *
    och till sitt arbete intill aftonen.

    Ära vare Fadern och Sonen och den helige Ande, *
    nu och alltid och i evigheters evighet. Amen.

    Ant. 2 Jubla och gläd dig, dotter Jerusalem. Se, din konung kommer. Frukta inte, dotter Sion, ty din frälsning kommer snart.

    Ant. 3 När den store Konungen kommer, skall våra hjärtan renas, så att vi värdigt går honom till mötes. Han kommer, han skall inte dröja.

    III

    Herre, mångfaldiga är dina verk!
    Med vishet har du gjort dem alla. *
    Jorden är full av vad du har skapat.
    Där är havet, det stora och vida: +
    ett tallöst vimmel rör sig däri, *
    djur både stora och små.

    Där seglar skeppen fram, *
    Leviatan har du skapat att leka där.
    Alla väntar de efter dig *
    att du skall ge dem deras mat i rätt tid.

    Du ger dem, då samlar de in, *
    du öppnar din hand, då mättas de med goda gåvor.
    Du döljer ditt ansikte, då förskräcks de, +
    du tar bort deras ande, då förgås de *
    och vänder åter till stoft igen.

    Du sänder ut din ande, då skapas de, *
    och du förnyar jordens ansikte.
    Må Herrens ära förbli i evighet, *
    må Herren glädja sig över sina verk,

    han som skådar på jorden, och den bävar, *
    han som rör vid bergen, och de ryker.
    Jag vill sjunga till Herrens ära, så länge jag lever, *
    jag vill lovsjunga min Gud, så länge jag är till.

    Må mina ord vara honom till behag, *
    må jag få glädja mig i Herren.
    Men må syndarna försvinna från jorden *
    och inga gudlösa finnas mer.

    Ära vare Fadern och Sonen och den helige Ande, *
    nu och alltid och i evigheters evighet. Amen.

    Ant. 3 När den store Konungen kommer, skall våra hjärtan renas, så att vi värdigt går honom till mötes. Han kommer, han skall inte dröja.

    Räta på er och lyft era huvuden,
    ty er befrielse närmar sig.

    Första läsningen
    Jes 26:7-21
    Gud skall upprätta sitt folk

    Den rättfärdiges väg är jämn, åt den rättfärdige bereder du en jämnad stig.
    Ja, på dina domars väg, Herre, hoppas vi på dig, till ditt namn och ditt pris står vår själs längtan.
    Min själ längtar efter dig om natten, och anden i mig söker dig tidigt, ty när dina domar drabbar jorden, lär sig jordkretsens inbyggare rättfärdighet.
    Om nåd bevisas mot den ogudaktige, så lär han sig inte rättfärdighet. I det land där rätt skulle övas gör han då vad orätt är och ser inte Herrens höghet.
    Herre, din hand är upplyft, men de ser det inte. Må de nu med blygsel se din nitälskan för folket, ja, må eld förtära dina ovänner.
    Herre, du skall skaffa frid åt oss, ty allt vad vi har uträttat har du utfört åt oss.
    Herre, vår Gud, andra herrar än du har härskat över oss, men endast dig prisar vi, endast ditt namn.
    De döda får inte liv igen, skuggorna står ej åter upp, därför hemsökte och förgjorde du dem och utrotade all deras åminnelse.
    Du förökade en gång folket, Herre, du förökade folket och bevisade dig härlig, du utvidgade landets alla gränser.
    Herre, i nöden har de nu sökt dig, de har utgjutit tysta böner, när din tuktan kom över dem.
    Som en havande kvinna, då hon är nära att föda, våndas och ropar i sina kval, så var det med oss inför ditt ansikte, o Herre.
    Vi var också havande och våndades, men när vi födde, var det vind. Vi kunde inte bereda frälsning åt landet. Inga människor föds mer till att bo på jordens krets.
    Men dina döda må få liv igen, mina dödas kroppar må åter stå upp. Vakna upp och jubla, ni som ligger i graven, ty din dagg är en ljusets dagg, och jorden skall ge tillbaka de avsomnade.
    Nåväl då, mitt folk, gå in i dina kamrar och stäng igen dörrarna om dig. Göm dig ett litet ögonblick, till dess att vreden har gått förbi. Ty se, Herren träder ut ur sin boning, för att hemsöka jordens inbyggare för deras missgärning, och jorden skall låta komma i dagen allt blod som där har blivit utgjutet, och skall inte längre dölja dem som där har blivit dräpta.
    Responsorium Jfr Jes 26:19; Dan 12:2

    Vakna upp och jubla, ni som bor i stoftet,
    + ty Herrens dagg är en ljusets dagg.
    Många av dem som sover i mullen skall vakna upp,
    + ty Herrens dagg är en ljusets dagg.

    Andra läsningen
    Ur en predikan av Haymo av Auxerre.
    Herren upprättar de svaga

    Blinda ser och lama går, spetälska blir rena och döva hör, döda står upp och fattiga får ett glädjebud.1 Med dessa kroppsliga svagheter betecknas själarnas kraftlöshet. Botandet av dessa svagheter räknas här upp, eftersom [Kristus] inte kom för att kalla rättfärdiga, utan syndare till bättring.
    Han säger alltså: Blinda ser. Eller med andra ord: Nu har tiden för min nåd uppenbarats, då det sanna ljus som strålar i världen upplyser deras ögon som satt i mörker och dödsskugga. Sedan deras andes öga renats, började de att bli varse honom, som säger i evangeliet: jag är världens ljus. Så uppfylldes i dem ordet: Saliga de renhjärtade, de skall se Gud.
    Lama går. Det betyder: De som stapplade fram på Guds väg, de löper nu framåt på de gudomliga budens väg, undervisade av de båda testamentenas lära och befästa i kärleken till Gud och nästan; de skyndar sig att komma från de jordiska tingen till det himmelska fäderneslandet. Så uppfylls i dem ordet: Saliga de ödmjuka, de skall ärva landet.
    Spetälska blir rena, dvs. de som var orena och vanställda på grund av syndens olika gärningar, de längtar nu efter att rena sig genom dopet och boten. De inte endast sörjer över sina tidigare synder; de suckar även av längtan efter det eviga livet. De bevarar under framgångarna ödmjukheten och under motgångarna tålamodet. Så uppfylls i dem ordet: Saliga de som håller fred, de skall kallas Guds söner. Och för att de skall kunna ta emot själens rening, växer de till en sådan fullkomning, att de inte endast undviker att själva göra det onda; de tar även med tålamod på sig det onda som läggs på dem av andra. Så uppfylls i dem ordet: Saliga de som förföljs för rättfärdighetens skull.
    Döva hör, ty de som tidigare stängde till sina öron för Guds ord men öppnade dem för att lyssna till gyckel, de täpper nu till sina öron för att inte höra vad blodet säger, men längtar med brinnande ande efter att höra Guds ord. De hungrar och törstar, för att i gärning kunna förverkliga det. Så uppfylls i dem ordet: Saliga de som hungrar och törstar efter rättfärdigheten, de skall bli mättade.
    Döda står upp, dvs. de som var liksom okänsliga och låg likt döda i sina synder, de dödar nu sina jordiska lemmar och börjar att andligen leva. Den barmhärtighet som de har erfarit i sig själva, den vill de efter förmåga låta komma andra till del, i det att de längtar efter att uppfylla detta Skriftens ord: Genom att visa förbarmande mot din själ behagar du Gud? Så uppfylls i dem ordet: Saliga de barmhärtiga, de skall möta barmhärtighet.
    Fattiga får ett glädjebud, dvs. de som var svaga och fattiga på dygder men fulla av laster, de föraktar nu världsliga rikedomar för att samla skatter i himlen. Genom gemenskapen i kärleken och genom den helige Andens nåd upphör de inte att för andra förkunna det goda, om vilket de har fått undervisning. Så uppfylls i dem ordet: Skönt ljuder stegen av dem som kommer med budskap om goda ting? De som tidigare var fattiga och tomma på dygder börjar nu att vara fattiga i anden. Så uppfylls i dem vad Herren säger i evangeliet: Saliga de som är fattiga i anden, dem tillhör himmelriket.
    Responsorium Jes 29:18,19; 35:6

    De döva skall på den tiden höra vad som läses för dem, och de blindas ögon skall se och vara fria från dunkel och mörker. Och de ödmjuka skall då känna allt större glädje i. Herren,
    + och de fattigaste bland människor skall fröjda sig i Israels Helige.
    ty. Dä skall den lame hoppa som en hjort, och den stummes tunga upplåtas,
    + och de fattigaste bland människor skall fröjda sig i Israels Helige.

    Te Deum

    O Gud, vi lovar dig, o Herre, vi bekänner dig.
    Dig, evige Fader, ärar hela jorden.
    Dig prisar alla änglar, himlarna och alla makter.
    Dig prisar kerubim och serafim och sjunger utan ände:
    ‘Helig, helig, helig är Herren Gud Sebaot.
    Fulla är himlarna och jorden av din äras majestät.’
    Dig prisar apostlarnas saliga kör.
    Dig lovar profeternas prisvärda skara.
    Dig ärar martyrernas vitklädda här.
    Över hela jorden bekänner dig den heliga kyrkan:
    dig, Fader allsmäktig,
    din högtlovade, sanne, enfödde Son
    och Tröstaren, den helige Ande.
    Du Kriste, ärans konung,
    Faderns Son är du i evighet.
    Till människans förlossning tog du mandom
    och försmådde icke jungfruns sköte.
    Du övervann dödens udd
    och upplät himmelriket för de trogna.
    Du sitter på Guds högra hand i Faderns härlighet.
    Därifrån igenkommande
    till att döma levande och döda.
    Därför beder vi: Hjälp dina tjänare
    som du återlöst med ditt dyra blod
    och giv åt dem bland dina helgon din eviga härlighet.
    Herre, fräls ditt folk och välsigna din arvedel,
    och var deras herde och bär dem till evig tid.
    Vi prisar dig alla dagar
    och lovsjunger ditt namn i evigheternas evighet.
    [Värdigas, Herre, denna dag bevara oss utan synd.
    Förbarma dig över oss, Herre, förbarma dig över oss.
    Din barmhärtighet, Herre, vare över oss,
    såsom vi hoppas på dig.
    På dig hoppas jag, o Herre,
    jag skall icke komma på skam till evig tid.]

    Slutbön

    Allsmäktige och barmhärtige Gud, låt inget här på jorden hindra oss att skynda din Son till mötes, utan led oss med din himmelska vishet till fullkomlig förening med honom, Jesus Kristus, vår Herre och Gud, som med dig, Fader, och den helige Ande, lever och råder i evigheters evighet.

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  2. 3 Common Misconceptions on the Immaculate Conception

    3 Common Misconceptions on the Immaculate Conception

    Source: http://www.ignitumtoday.com/2013/12/08/three-common-misconceptions-on-the-immaculate-conception/

    Today, December 8th, the Church would observe the feast of the Immaculate Conception. This year the feast is transferred to Monday the 9th, giving precedence to the Second Sunday of Advent. In my experience, the Immaculate Conception is one of the most misunderstood teachings of the Church. Today, I’d like to address three common misconceptions on the Immaculate Conception.

    1. The Immaculate Conception was Jesus’ conception in the womb of Mary.

    This is, in my opinion, the greatest misconception regarding the Immaculate Conception. I think back to my December 8th World History class in high school, when the teacher, a Catholic with a master’s degree in theology from a Catholic college, announced to our class the Church was celebrating the feast of the Immaculate Conception explaining that it was the celebration of Jesus’ conception in the womb of Mary. He went on to say that he never understood this feast day because in less than 20 days, Jesus would be born on Christmas Day. He concluded this is what the Church meant by the virgin birth.

    I hope the reader of this article does not espouse these beliefs. I can, however, understand why some people would think the feast celebrates the conception of Jesus for two reasons:

    a) The Church celebrates the feast of the Immaculate Conception during the season of Advent, a season of waiting and expectation for the birth of the Christ child.

    b) The gospel for the feast of the Immaculate Conception is Luke 1:26-38–the Annunciation of Jesus’ birth.

    Proper Catechesis: The feast of the Annunciation, celebrated on March 25, is the commemoration of Jesus’ conception. If one counts the months from March 25 to December 25, one will discover the normal amount of time for gestation—nine months. Rest assured the miraculous nature of Jesus birth does not involve only 17 days in the womb! The Immaculate Conception refers to the conception of Mary in the womb of St. Anne and her preservation from the taint of original sin. The dogma declares that Mary was free of original sin because she received pre-redemption from the merits of the cross on which her son would die upon.

    2. The Church Made Up the Immaculate Conception

    While the Immaculate Conception only was proclaimed a dogma in 1854, the Church did not wake up one morning and think it was a good idea to tell people the Spirit moved them to declare Mary was immaculately conceived. The Apostolic Constitution which proclaimed the dogma, Ineffabilis Deus, provides an extensive overview of the tradition. Belief in the Immaculate Conception dates back to the early Church and was the subject of reflection on the part of some of the Patristics. It saw a heightened development from the twelfth century onward. St. Anselm laid the groundwork for the dogma and influenced the English Eadmer, who wrote in defense of the Immaculate Conception and proposed the notion of passive conception. It was Duns Scotus who refined the arguments for the Immaculate Conception, earning him the title Defender of the Immaculate Conception. Many of the Roman Pontiffs (e.g. Alexander VII) and the Council of Trent proposed the immaculate conception of Mary. Given the longstanding tradition and belief of the Church, Pius IX declared the Immaculate Conception as a dogma of the Church, thus binding in Heaven what was bound on earth. And as many know, it was only four years later that Our Lady confirmed this title herself in her manifestations to St. Bernadette Soubirous in Lourdes, France.

    3. Some Doctors of the Church denied the Immaculate Conception.

    St. Bernard of Clairvaux is one of my favorite saints! He wrote extensively on the Blessed Virgin Mary, so much so that the antiphon for vespers on his feast day salutes him as an eminent preacher of the Virgin’s glory. One aspect of his Mariology that some may be aware of is his “denial” of the Immaculate Conception in a letter to the canons in Lyons who introduced the feast of Mary’s conception. Augustine, who viewed sex as sinful, highly influenced Bernard. This raised the question whether or not the Holy Spirit could be associated with a sinful act. Bernard did hold that Mary was sanctified in the womb and that she never committed a sin during her life.

    Another prominent doctor, cited as a denier of the Immaculate Conception, is Thomas Aquinas. You can read Aquinas’ Summa question here. Similar to Bernard, Aquinas held that Mary was conceived with original sin, but she was sanctified in the womb of St. Anne before her birth. One hold up in accepting the Immaculate Conception was if this was the case Mary would not have needed a redeemer. Since I describe myself more as a resourcement theologian rather than a Thomist, I refer the reader to other articles discussing Thomas Aquinas’ belief: New Theological Movement; Patheos.

    For Bernard and Aquinas, Mary was sanctified in the womb which is different from denying the overall sinlessness of Mary. It is important to keep in mind these Fathers of the Church, along with the other “deniers” of the Immaculate Conception, were not subject to the Church’s 1854 teaching as it was only a theological opinion. With Pius IX’s dogmatic declaration, all Catholics are now obliged to hold this belief: “Hence, if anyone shall dare — which God forbid! — to think otherwise than as has been defined by us, let him know and understand that he is condemned by his own judgment; that he has suffered shipwreck in the faith; that he has separated from the unity of the Church; and that, furthermore, by his own action he incurs the penalties established by law if he should are to express in words or writing or by any other outward means the errors he think in his heart.”

    Conclusion

    The Immaculate Conception has been held as a pious belief for centuries before the dogmatic declaration. Religious congregations like the Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception founded in the 1600’s. This day as we contemplate the conception of the Virgin Mary may her sinlessness inspire us on our sojourn to the heavenly Jerusalem. Through her prayers, now and at the hour of our death, may we become worthy of the promises of Christ.

    Sources:

    Hilda Graef, Mary: A History of Doctrine and Devotion
    Juniper Carol. Fundamentals of Mariology. New York: Benzinger Brothers, 1956.

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